Rajanpur was name given by the famous sofi Makhdoom Shaikh Rajan in 1770, it was a small village, Kot Mithan was one of the famous Town because it was administrative unite in British ruler’s headed by Assistant district commissioners, due to heavy flood in Kot Mithan, administrative office move to Rajanpur. This move was not only administrative office but also Arora merchants and traders.
Rajanpur become tehsil headquarter in 1873 and in 1982 it was designated District Headquarter, with three tehsils Jampur, Rjanpur & Rojhan, These tehsils are subdivided in Union Councils
The district Rajanpur is situated entirely West of the Indus River. It is a narrow32 kilometers to 64 kilometers wide strip of land& sand which is between the Indus River on the East and the Sulaeman Mountains on the West.
The district is bounded on the North by Dera Ghazi Khan, on the East by Muzaffargarh and Rahimyar Khan districts lying across the river Indus, on the South there is district Jacobabad of Sindh province while on the West are the districts of Dera Bugti and Barkhan of Baluchistan province
Rajanpur district is marked by wide varieties in temperature. Coldest month is January when maximum and minimum temperatures are 21 and 4.5°C respectively. June is the hottest month when mean maximum temperature is 50°C and mean minimum temperature is 30°C. During monsoon season, heavy rain fall in the catchment area results in very excessive water in the river Indus that causes flood. Similarly hill torrents emerge from Suleman range from the West and their excessive water enters the plain areas of Jampur, Rajanpur and Rojhan causing heavy damage in these areas. These rains sometimes cause dangerous floods in the Indus, mostly in the beginning of summer season, when snow melts on the Himalayans. The river gradually swells till it fills its bed for as much as a breadth of 14 kilometers, pouring floods down the depressions in the Rajanpur tehsil and filling the heap canals.
According to the Senses of Pakistan 1998 total Population of district Rajanpur was 11, 03,618 as increase of 172.7 percent since March 1981 when it was 6, 38,921. Now the Estimated Total population of district Rajanpur till 2014 1610386, in which male are 847546 in percentage 52.36% and female are 762839 which is almost 47.37% of the Total population. The average growth rate is3.27 for this period. The total area of the district is 12,318 km which gives a population density of 130 persons per square KM. There are two municipal committees namely Rajanpur and Jampur, while four town committees that include Fazilpur, Dajal, Kot Mithan and Rojhan.
As per 1998 census, Islam is the religion of the majority of the district that is 99.7%. Ahmedis are 0.05 %, followed by scheduled castes at 0.03 %. Other minorities are very small in numbers.
Seraiki is the predominant language spoken as mother tongue by 75.8% of the district’s population, followed by Baluchi17%, Punjabi 3.3%& Urdu 3.2%. In urban areas Seraiki speaking are 72.4%, Urdu 15.7%, Punjabi 5.5% and Baluchi 3.8%.
The main tribes of District Rajanpur are Gopang, Lashari, Mazari, Dreshak, Gorchani, Lund, Ahmedani, Jat, Rajput, Arain, Qureshi and Syeds. Gopang tribe is based in Fazilpur area. The tribes are famous for its bravery and hospitality. Mazari tribe is of key importance in Rajanpur. The tribal chief, Mir Balakh Sher Mazari has been the Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan, while Dreshek tribe is also big tribe of Rajanpur headed by Sardar Nawazash Khan. The key political figures of the Dreshak tribe are Sardar Nasrullah Khan Dreshak (former Minister) and Amanullah Dreshak (member parliament). New emerging Personalities of this district are Sardar Hassnain Khan Dreshek, Sardar Ali Raza Khan Drishek, Sardar Atif Khan Mazari & Sardar Sher ali Gorchari